Être/Avoir is the eighth skill (assuming you go from left to right) in the French language tree. In this skill, you review the present indicative tense forms of être (the French "to be," which you've learned in Basics 1 and Basics 2) and learn the other forms of "avoir" (the French to have), two of the most commonly used verbs in French. You also learn how to use ce in place of a third-person pronoun.


Lesson 1Edit

  • c' = that, it (contraction of ce)
  • suis = am
  • es = are (2nd person singular informal)
  • ai = have (1st person singular)
  • as = have (2nd person singular informal)
  • a = has (3rd person singular)

Lesson 2Edit

  • ce = that, it
  • sont = are (3rd person plural)
  • sommes = are (1st person plural)
  • êtes = are (2nd person plural and/or formal)
  • avons = have (1st person plural)
  • avez = have (2nd person plural and/or formal)
  • ont = have (3rd person plural)

Grammar NotesEdit



Subject être avoir
je je suis j'ai
tu tu es tu as
il, elle, ce il, elle, ce est il, elle a
nous nous sommes nous avons
vous vous êtes vous avez
ils, elles ils, elles sont ils, elles ont

Il est or C'estEdit

Il est is used for people, while c'est is used for objects. One rule overrides this; c'est can also be used when an article proceeds a noun.

  • Il est un homme./C'est un homme.

When an adjective follows être and refers to a specific thing, then il est is used. If the adjective is not referring to a specific thing (aka it is referring to a general state of an area or objects are not expressively mentioned), then use c'est.


Duolingo Lesson:

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