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Basics 2 is the fourth skill in the Russian language tree. This skill contains five lessons. The things you will learn in this skill are: how to express possession, basic phrasing, and begin to learn about verb conjugation and plurals

Grammar NotesEdit

"I have"Edit

Russian lacks an actual verb for "to have." Instead, they use the phrase "by (whomever) is..."

  • У меня есть картошки. ("I have potatoes.")

In cases where a specific amount of something is owned or where the owned object is obvious, the есть is removed.

Verb ConjugationEdit

Russian verb conjugation is much harder than English. All six grammatical persons (I, we, etc.) have different conjugations. However, almost all verbs in Russian are regular, and fit into two categories, which we'll get into later. The verb «есть», "to eat," is one of these irregular verbs, but is not too irregular.

PluralsEdit

Russian, just like English, changes the ending of a word to show that there are two or more of this thing. In Russian, the most common ending for a plural is -ы or -и. There will be a later skill that will teach plurals in more detail.

Voiced/VoicelessEdit

Ever notice that "p" and "b" have the same basic sound, with the only difference being it requires a tiny bit more force to say "b"? This is because "b" is what is called a "voiced" consonant and "p" is a "voiceless" consonant.

In English, it doesn't mean much more than that, but Russian (and the Cyrillic alphabet) is based on this concept. The Russian alphabet is divided in half, with the voiced consonants and vowels on one side and the voiceless consonants and vowels on the other.

In order to figure out which to use, check whatever is after the consonant:

  • if it's а, ы, у, э, ъ, or о, then the consonant is voiced.
  • if it's я, и, ю, е, ь, or ë, then the consonant is voiceless.

LessonsEdit

Lesson 1Edit

  • сестра = sister
  • у меня есть = I have
  • мы = we
  • брат = brother
  • молоко = milk

Lesson 2Edit

  • ребёнок = child
  • мои = my (plural)
  • у тебя есть = you (sing.) have
  • кошка = cat
  • у нас есть = we have
  • яблоки = apples

Lesson 3Edit

  • вода = water
  • дети = children
  • ты пьёшь = you (sing.) drink
  • он пьёт = he drinks
  • это = this
  • что = what
  • моё = my (neuter)

Lesson 4Edit

  • стол = table
  • яйцо = egg
  • офис = office
  • наш = our (masc.)
  • телефон = telephone
  • план = plan
  • тарелка = plate

Lesson 5Edit

  • лошадь = horse
  • у неё есть = she has
  • у него есть = he has
  • у них есть = they have

ReferencesEdit

Duolingo Lesson: www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Basics-2


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