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Perfective 1 is the thirty-fourth (assuming read left to right) skill of the language tree for Russian. This skill teaches the perfective verbs, a different verb tense that doesn't exist in English. It has six lessons.

Grammar NotesEdit

Introduction to AspectEdit

Russian has a special grammar point called 'aspect', for which there is no real English equivalent. Basically, a repeated action and an action that is completed once are two different verbs (well, mostly different). These two kinds of verbs are perfective and imperfective:

Perfective Imperfective
  • Actions that have fixed point in time.
  • Actions that are in a sequence ("I did this then I did that").
  • Actions that are the result or cause of another action ("He did this, so I did that").
  • Actions that should be done (but might not be).
  • Actions where the timing of the action is irrelevant.
  • Actions that are repeated or are part of a process.
  • Actions that you have not done or have done before ("I have never skied before").
  • A state or an ongoing action ("He's talking to her now")

Morphology of the Perfective FormsEdit

All verbs change form when they go from imperfective to perfective, but the changes are usually small:

  • Add a prefix like на- or по- to the verb.
  • Add a suffix like -ать to -ывать.
  • Sometimes the same verb is used but the stress changes.
  • A few verbs change entirely (говорить -> сказать).

LessonsEdit

Note: all of the verbs in this section are perfective

Lesson 1Edit

  • купить = to buy
  • фотография = photo
  • забыть = to forget
  • ключ = key
  • узнать = to find out

Lesson 2Edit

  • прочитать = to read
  • сделать = to do
  • лечь спать = to go to bed
  • встать = to get up
  • задания = task
  • сегодна = today

Lesson 3Edit

  • привыкнуть = to get used to
  • контрольная работа = test
  • рассказ = (short) story
  • утром = in the morning
  • вечером = in the evening
  • ночью = at night

Lesson 4Edit

  • получить = to get
  • диск = disc
  • вдруг = suddenly
  • наконец = finally
  • взять = to take
  • потом = then, afterwards
  • посмотреть = to watch

Lesson 5Edit

  • потерять = to lose
  • выбрать = to choose
  • опоздать = to be late
  • придти = to arrive
  • сообщение = message
  • продать = to sell
  • мочь = may, can

Lesson 6Edit

  • помочь = to help
  • бросить = to throw
  • увидить = to see
  • опать = again
  • обсудить = to discuss
  • встретить = to meet

ReferencesEdit

Duolingo Lesson: www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/People

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