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Accusative is the fifth (assuming read left to right) skill in the language tree for Turkish. It has six lessons and teaches the second of the seven Turkish grammatical cases, the accusative (you learned the nominative in the first four)

Grammar NotesEdit

Accusative CaseEdit

Turkish has a system of cases that regulate nouns, the first one being the nominative (this was taught in the first few lessons). This case governs subjects and general nouns (anything following bir, essentially). The second one learned is the new one in this skill, the accusative. This is used for direct objects - the object that is receiving an action (the apple begin eaten, the wine being drunk, etc.). Note that cases only apply for things that have "the" in front of them in English (as the nominative covers ones that don't).

The accusative causes an ending to be added to the noun that depends on the last vowel in the word. The "y" is inserted if the last letter is the vowel in question.

Last Vowel Accusative Ending Example
-ö/ü -(y)ü süt -> sütü
-o/u -(y)u tuz -> tuzu
-e/i -(y)i kahve -> kahveyi
-a/ı -(y)ı çorba -> çorbayı

There are also a few nouns which change a consonant at the end if it is put into another case (the "Lessons" section will list any in a given lesson). Essentially, though:

  • k -> ğ
  • p -> b
  • t -> d
  • ç -> c

4-Way Vowel HarmonyEdit

The way that the accusative is formed uses something called four-way vowel harmony. This will become important in later cases and lessons, so it is very important to get this down now. Duolingo notes refer to this kind of harmony with a capital I.

LessonsEdit

Lesson 1Edit

No new words.

Lesson 2Edit

  • siz = you (plural/formal)
  • siz yersiniz = you eat
  • siz içersiniz = you drink

Lesson 3Edit

No new words.

Lesson 4Edit

  • tavuğu, balığı, çileği, şarabı, ekmeği, yemeği
  • yoğurd = yogurt

Lesson 5Edit

  • o okur = he/she reads
  • kitap = book
  • kitabı
  • oku = read
  • onlar okurlar = they read
  • gazete = newspaper
  • siz okursunuz = you read

Lesson 6Edit

  • ben okurum = I read
  • biz okuruz = we read
  • sen okursun = you read
  • menü = menu
  • bunu = this (accusative)
  • onu = him/her

ReferencesEdit

Duolingo Lesson: www.duolingo.com/skill/tr/Accusative

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