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Brought Upis the fifty-fourth (assuming read left to right) skill in the language tree for Welsh. It contains four lessons and teaches the past passive that was learned in The News and extends it to all of the other personal pronouns. It also reviews mutations after possessive pronouns.

Grammar NotesEdit

Mutations following possessive pronouns are as follows:

Possessive Pronoun Type of Mutation Examples
fy nasal Ges i fy ngeni yng Nghymru.
dy soft Gest ti dy ddihuno gan dy chwaer.
eich none Gaethoch chi eich dal.
ei (his) soft Gaeth Owen ei glywed.
ei (her) aspirate and h-vowel Gaeth hi ei harestio. Gaeth hi ei chytuno.
ein h-vowel Gaethon ni ein hanafu.
eu h-vowel Gaethon nhw eu hyrru.

LessonsEdit

Lesson 1Edit

  • fy geni = (I) was born
  • mil = thousand
  • dy eni = (you) were born
  • eich geni = (you) were born
  • pumdegau = fifties
  • chwedegau = sixties
  • wythdegau = eighties

Lesson 2Edit

  • ei eni = (he) was born
  • ei geni = (she) was born
  • yng Nghymru = in Wales
  • yng Ngogledd = in the North
  • ei fagu = (he) was brought up
  • ei magu = (she) was brought up
  • yn Ne = in the South

Lesson 3Edit

  • ei weld = (he) was seen
  • ei glywed = (he) was heard
  • ei dalu = (he) was paid
  • Siôn = Siôn (a name)
  • ei ddihuno = (he) was woken up
  • fy nalu = (I) was paid

Lesson 4Edit

  • ei gweld = (she) was seen
  • ei chlywed = (she) was heard
  • dy dalu = (you) were paid
  • dy weld = (you) were seen
  • ei thalu = (she) was paid
  • ei dihuno = (she) was woken up

ReferencesEdit

Duolingo Lesson: www.duolingo.com/skill/cy/BroughtUp

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