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Countries is a twenty-seventh (assuming read left to right) skill in the Welsh language tree. It has a total of seven lessons, and it teaches the words for various countries, oceans, and national symbols.

Grammar NotesEdit

Country NamesEdit

Many countries in Welsh have yr/y in front of them. This "the" has no meaning and is part of the country's name.

Yn and Nasal MutationEdit

When yn is being used as a preposition meaning "in", it is never abbreviated to 'n. Also, when it means "in" (and only then), yn is followed by nouns that show "nasal mutation" (in other words, changes to "n" or "m"). The letters affected and the letters they change to are:

  • p -> mh
  • t -> nh
  • c -> ngh
  • b -> m
  • d -> n
  • g -> ng

Yn itself will also change to reflect this, becoming ym or yng (or staying yn) depending on which change occurred with the the following letters:

  • Caerdydd (Cardiff) -> yng Nghaerdydd (in Cardiff)
  • Bangor -> ym Mangor (in Bangor)
  • Tywyn -> yn Nhywyn (in Tywyn)

The Welsh FlagEdit

This phrase (and others like it) will not have y/yr/'r in them unless the name of the country includes these words (in which case you would keep them).

  • baner Cymru = the Welsh flag
  • tîm Lloegr = the English team
  • baner yr Alban = the Scottish team (yr Alban)

LessonsEdit

Lesson 1:EuropeEdit

  • Ffrainc = France
  • Iwerddon = Ireland
  • Llydaw = Brittany
  • Cymru = Wales
  • Yr Eidal = Italy
  • Yr Almaen = Germany
  • Yr Alban = Scotland

Lesson 2:I'm from...Edit

  • Llgoer = England
  • byw = to live
  • Sbaen = Spain
  • Norwy = Norway
  • Awstralia = Australia
  • dod o = to come from
  • yn wreiddiol = originally
  • Prydain = Britain

Lesson 3:AmericaEdit

  • Yr Ariannin = Argentina
  • gwlad = country
  • gwledydd = countries
  • daearddiaeth = geography
  • America = America
  • Canada = Canada
  • Yr Unol Daleithiau = the United States

Lesson 4:CitiesEdit

  • Llundain = London
  • Efrog = York
  • Efrog Newydd = New York
  • Caeredin = Edinburgh
  • Dulyn = Dublin
  • Caerdydd = Cardiff
  • prifddinas = capital

Lesson 5:National SymbolsEdit

  • baner = flag
  • Affrica = Africa
  • anthem = anthem
  • genedlaethol = national

Lesson 6:ContinentsEdit

  • Ewrop = Europe
  • De America = South America
  • Gogledd America = North America
  • Yr Antartig = Antarctica

Lesson 7:Seas and OceansEdit

  • cefnfor = ocean
  • môr = sea
  • Môr Tawel = Pacific Ocean
  • Môr y Gogledd = North Sea
  • Môr y Canoldir = Mediterranean Sea
  • Môr Iwerydd = Atlantic Ocean
  • ar draws = across

ReferencesEdit

Duolingo Lesson: www.duolingo.com/skill/cy/Gwledydd