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Past Tense 3 is the thirtieth (assuming read left to right) skill of the language tree for Welsh, and it has a total of six lessons. A continuation of Past Tense 2, it teaches the simple past tense (as opposed to the compound past with wedi). It also shows the dialectical differences between the different forms of this tense.

Grammar NotesEdit

South WelshEdit

The main thing here is to add the appropriate past tense ending to the stem of the verb:

Pronoun Ending Example with gweld
i -ais gwelais i
ti -aist gwelaist ti
e/hi -odd gwelodd e/hi
ni -on gwelon ni
nhw -on gwelon nhw
chi -och gweloch chi

The stem is the main part of the verb minus any vowels and/or d, ae, yll, ed, or eg.

North WelshEdit

North Welsh instead uses the irregular past tense of gwneud as an auxiliary (like how we use "to have" as an auxiliary in English) with mi in front:

Pronoun Conjugation of gwneud used Example with gweld
i wnes Mi wnes i weld
ti wnest Mi wnest ti weld
e/hi wnaeth Mi wnaeth e/hi weld
ni wnaethon Mi wnaethon ni weld
nhw wnaethion Mi wnaethion nhw weld
chi wnaethoch Mi wnaethoch chi weld

In negatives and questions, drop the mi.

LessonsEdit

Lesson 1Edit

  • gwelais i/mi wnes i weld = I saw
  • ffrind = friend
  • edrychais i ar/mi wnes i edrych ar = I looked at
  • edrych = to look
  • teledu = television
  • ffoniais i/mi wnes i ffonio = I phoned

Lesson 2Edit

  • papur = paper
  • darllenais i/mi wnes i ddarllen = I read
  • darllen = to read
  • llyfr = book
  • arwydd = sign
  • codais i/mi wnes i godi = I got up
  • bwytais i/mi wnes i fwyta = I ate

Lesson 3Edit

  • gwelodd hi/mi wnaeth hi weld = she saw
  • gwelodd e/mi wnaeth e weld = he saw
  • darllenodd hi = she read
  • mi wnaeth hi fwyta = she ate
  • echnos = the night before yesterday

Lesson 4Edit

  • neithiwr = last night
  • gaethoch chi = you had
  • aethoch chi = you went
  • wnaethoch chi = you did

Lesson 5Edit

  • lle aeth o = where did he go to
  • aeth e/o/hi = he/she went
  • gaeth e/o/hi = he/she had

Lesson 6Edit

  • gaethon ni/nhw = we/they had

ReferencesEdit

Duolingo Lesson: www.duolingo.com/skill/cy/PastTens3

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